Everyone makes mistakes. For most of us though, the consequences of our actions fall to ourselves and sometimes to those with whom we associate, but seldom extends beyond. The residue of our missteps tend to erode away with time, until they are eventually forgotten. Scars can remain, but over time, we tend to forget how we got them.
Occasionally though a mistake can change the course of history and even distort the face of the earth. When the Khwarazmian Shaw humiliated and killed a couple of Mongolian trade emissaries, he arguably made one of the most consequential mistakes in all of human history. This mistake would lead to the deaths of millions. Borders would be redrawn. Family lines would end. Entire cities and cultures would disappear, and the Khwarazmian Empire would fall.
On this episode, we will be discussing the the pursuit of the Khwarazmian Shah by Chinggis Khan’s most reliable general, and one of planet Earth’s all-time deadliest men, Subutai.
Carl Fredrik Sverdrup. MONGOL CONQUESTS : The Military Operations of Genghis Khan and Sube’etei. S.L., Helion & Co Ltd, 2020.
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Subotai the Valiant : Genghis Khan’s Greatest General. Praeger, 2004. University of Alabama Libraries’ Classic Catalog, libdata.lib.ua.edu/login?url=search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat00456a&AN=ua.1677394&site=edslive&scope=site.
“The RIGHT HAND of KHAN.” Military History, vol. 25, no. 2, May 2008, pp. 42–49. Military & Government Collection, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=31706812&site=ehostlive&scope=site.
Guzman, Gregory G. “European captives and craftsmen among the Mongols, 1231-1255.” The Historian, vol. 72, no. 1, 2010, p. 122+. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A221917893/AONE?u=tusc49521&sid=AONE&xid=fba6c52c. Accessed 12 Jan. 2021.
Hildinger, Erik. “Mongol Invasion of Europe.” Military History, vol. 14, no. 2, June 1997, p. 38. Military & Government Collection, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=9704244063&site=ehostlive&scope=site.
May, Tomthy. HISTORIANS on LEADERSHIP and STRATEGY : Case Studies from Antiquity To. S.L., Springer, 2019, pp. 215–232.
Montalbano, Kathryn A. “Misunderstanding the Mongols: Intercultural Communication in Three ThirteenthCentury Franciscan Travel Accounts.” Information & Culture, vol. 50, no. 4, 2015, pp. 588–610, doi.org/10.7560/IC50406, 10.7560/IC50406. Accessed 12 Jan. 2021.
Pow, Stephen, and Jingjing Liao. “Subutai: Sorting Fact from Fiction Surrounding the Mongol Empire’s Greatest General (with Translations of Subutai’s Two Biographies in the Yuan Shi).” Journal of Chinese Military History, vol. 7, no. 1, Jan. 2018, pp. 37–76. Historical Abstracts with Full Text, libdata.lib.ua.edu/login?url=search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=30h&AN=130077190&site=edslive&scope=site, 10.1163/2212745312341323.
Rahmati, Rahmati. “The Last Fight between Sultan Muhammad Khwarazm Shah and Mongol Army.” Man in India, vol. 97, no. 23, Jan. 2017, pp. 605–624, http://www.researchgate.net/publication/327225718_The_last_fight_between_sultan_muhammad_khwarazmshah_and_mongol_army. Accessed 2 Mar. 2021.